## Definition of Shear Force and Bending Moment

Important Point

### Shear Force

Shear force is the **unbalanced vertical force which is acting on to the right or left of the section.**It’s also termed as aligned forces pushing **one part of the body in the specific direction,** and the** other part** of the** body is another direction.**

Sometimes, a** crack is developed in a body from the parallel shear force acting** in a different direction at another point of the body. Colinear forces are also **termed as compressive forces.**

### Bending Moment

Bending moment is the **algebraic sum of all the moment of forces, according to the right or left of the section. **It’s the reaction which is induced in a** structural element due to external force or moment is applied.**

In the** equilibrium position**, the moment which is created by **external forces is balanced by the couple** induced by the internal load; this internal couple is** called a bending moment.**

## What Is Shear Force : Sign Convention of Shear Force:

Shear force is an unbalanced vertical force, so it tends to **slide one portion of the beam upward or downward with respect to the other.**

Shear force at a section is considered as **positive when the left-hand portion tends to slide upward, or the right-hand portion tends to slide downward.**

Same as a shear force at a section is **negative when the left-hand portion tends to slide downward, or the right-hand portion tends to slide upward.**

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## What Is Bending Moment : Sign Convention for Bending Moment:

We considered bending moment at a section is positive when it tends to bend the beam at a point to a curvature having a **concavity at the top **or when the moments are acting **clockwise direction to the left or anti-clockwise direction to the right.**

On the other hand, we considered bending moment at a section is negative when it tends to bend the beam at a point to a curvature having **convexity at the top** or moments are taken **anti-clockwise direction to the left or clockwise direction to the right.**

Sometimes the positive bending moment is termed as **sagging moment,** and the negative bending moment is termed as a **hogging moment.**

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## Relation Between Loading, Shear Force & Bending Moment:

The following relations are essential for loading, shear force and bending moment relation-

If there is a point load at a section on the beam, then the shear force suddenly changes**(i.e. the shear force line is vertical).** But the bending moment remains the same.

If there is no load between two points, then the **shear force does not change** (I.e. shear force line is horizontal) but the **bending moment changes linearly** (I.e. bending moment line is an inclined straight line).

If there is a uniformly distributed load between two points, then the **shear force changes linearly** (I.e. shear line is an inclined straight line). But the bending moment changes according to the **parabolic law**(i.e. bending moment line will be parabola).

If there us a uniformly varying load between two points then the shear force changes according to the **parabolic law**(i.e. shear force line will be parabola) but the bending moment changes according to the **cubic law.**

Where **shear force changes, it’s sign there bending moment is maximum.**

Where bending moment changes, it’s a sign that point is known as **the point of contra flexure or inflation point.**

### What Is Shear Force and Bending Moment?

**Shear** and **bending moment** diagrams are analytical tools used in conjunction with structural analysis to help perform structural design by determining the value of **shear force and bending moment** at a given point of a structural element such as a beam.

### Definition of Shear Force and Bending Moment

**Shear force** is taken +ve if it produces a clockwise **moment** and it is taken -ve when it produces an anticlockwise **moment**. **Bending moment** at any point along a loaded beam may be **defined** as the sum of the **moments** due to all vertical **forces** acting on either side of the point on the beam.

### What Is Meant by Shear Force?

**Shearing force** is **defined** as the **force** transverse to the beam at a given section tending to cause it to **shear** at that section.

### Shear Force

A **shear force** is a **force** applied perpendicular to a surface, in opposition to an offset **force** acting in the opposite direction. This results in a **shear** **strain**. In simple terms, one part of the surface is pushed in one direction, while another part of the surface is **pushed in the opposite direction**.

### Bending Moment

In solid mechanics, a **bending moment** is the reaction induced in a structural element when an external force or **moment** is applied to the element, causing the element to bend. The most common or simplest structural element subjected to **bending moments** is the beam.

### Shear Force and Bending Moment:

Its baseline is equal to the span of the beam, drawn on a suitable scale. For point loads S.F. diagram has a straight horizontal line, for UDL( Uniformly Distributed Load), It has straight inclined lines, and for uniformly varying loads it has a parabolic curve.

### Shear Forces

Shear force is **a force acting in a direction that’s parallel to (over the top of) a surface or cross section of a body**, like the pressure of air flow over an airplane wing. The word shear in the term is a reference to the fact that such a force can cut, or shear, through the surface or object under strain.

### What Is Shear Force?

Shear force is the force acting on a substance in a direction perpendicular to the extension of the substance, acting in a direction to a planar cross section of a body. Shear force is also known as shearing force.

### Shear Force Definition

In solid mechanics, shearing forces are unaligned forces acting on one part of a body in a specific direction, and another part of the body in the opposite direction. When the forces are collinear, they are called tension forces and compression forces.

### What Is Bending Moment?

Bending moment is **the resistance against the rotation of a member caused by applying load on the structure to the distance from the reference point**. The applied moment depends on intensity of the load, nature of the load and distance from the reference point and support type cause the effect on bending moment.

### What Is Bending Moment and Shear Force?

Shear force refers to the force that acts parallel to the cross-section of a structural element, while bending moment is the moment that occurs when an external force is applied to the element causing it to bend.

### What Is Shearing Force?

Shearing force is defined as the force transverse to the beam at a given section tending to cause it to shear at that section. From: Newnes Engineering and Physical Science Pocket Book, 1993.

### What Is Shear Force in Civil Engineering?

In the field of civil engineering, shear force is a fundamental concept that plays a crucial role in the analysis and design of structures. It refers to **the internal force that acts parallel to the cross-section of a structural member, causing it to deform or fail.**

### Difference Between Shear Force and Bending Moment

SHEAR FORCE is defined as the algebraic sum of all the vertical forces either to left or to the right hand side of the section. BENDING MOMENT is defined as the algebraic sum of the moments of all the forces either to the left or to the right of a section.

### What Are Shear Forces?

**A force acting in a direction parallel to a surface or to a planar cross section of a body**, as for example the pressure of air along the front of an airplane wing. Shear forces often result in shear strain. Resistance to such forces in a fluid is linked to its viscosity.

### What Is Bending Force?

A bending force is **a force that is applied to a length of material**. The bending force is applied to a point, area or volume that is some distance from a fixed portion of the component or structure to which the force is being applied.

### Shear Stress and Bending Moment

Shear Stress: Force per unit area parallel to the surface of a material.

Bending Moment: Measure of bending or flexural behavior in a structural element due to external loads.

### What Do You Mean by Shear Force?

Shear force is the internal force that acts parallel to the cross-section of a material or structural element. When an external load or force is applied to a beam or any other structural member, it induces shear forces along the cross-section of the member. These shear forces cause the material to deform or slide along the planes parallel to the applied force.

### What Is Meant by Bending Moment?

Bending moment is the measure of the internal bending or flexural behavior of a structural element, such as a beam, when subjected to an external load or moment. When a beam is loaded, it experiences bending, causing it to bend or deform.

### Differentiate Between Bending and Shear Forces

Shear force is taken +ve if it produces a clockwise moment and it is taken -ve when it produces an anticlockwise moment. Bending Moment – Bending moment at any point along a loaded beam may be defined as the sum of the moments due to all vertical forces acting on either side of the point on the beam.

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