## Test on Aggregate

Important Point

Any Concrete work before must be ** Test on aggregate** because of sure working quality of Concrete. Difference type of test no aggregates. as per below tests point out of **aggregate test.**

- Sampling of Aggregate Tests
- Aggregate Crushing Value
- Impact Value of Coarse Aggregate
- Sieve Analysis Test of Coarse Aggregates
- Flakiness Index of Aggregate
- Elongation Index of Aggregate
- Compressive Strength Test for Concrete

## Sampling of Aggregate Tests

- Samples from stockpiles shall be taken equally from the top third,
**midpoint and bottom third**of the height of stock. - The outer layer of the sampling point shall be removed, and the sample is taken from the material beneath.
- The sample thus collected will be the gross sample.
**The quantity of the total sample**depends on the aggregate size. - Reduction of Gross Sample will be made as per quartering method to required sample size for testing as per following;
- Take the gross sample on the open platform. For
**Fine aggregate**, use tray so that**residual fines**can be collected by brushing. - The
**aggregate**shall be mixed and then scooped into a cone shape pile. - After the cone is formed, it shall be flattened by pressing the top. Then it is divided into four
**quadrants diagonally**. - The bulk of the sample is reduced by rejecting any two diagonally opposite Quarters
- This method is repeated until the sample size is approximately achieved forgiven.

Also read : Different Between Clamp Burning and Kiln Burning | What Is Clamp Burning | What IS Kiln Burning

## Aggregate Crushing Value

**Aim of Aggregate Crushing Value**

- To calculate
**aggregate Crushing**value by**testing aggregate**passing 12.5 mm sieve and retained on a 10 mm sieve.

**Scope ****of Aggregate Crushing Value**

- This procedure covers all relative activity for the project site.

**Apparatus of Aggregate Crushing Value:**

**15cm dia. steel cylinder with plunger and base plate**

**Tamping rod 16 mm dia. and 600 mm long with one end rounded**

**Weighing balance of accuracy 1 g**

**Sieves 12.5 mm 10mm & 2.36 mm**

**Drying Oven**

**CTM**

**Procedure of Aggregate Crushing Value**

- Take a
**sample of aggregates**by sieving through 12.5mm and retained on 10mm. - The aggregate shall be tested in
**dry surface conditions**. If dried by heating, the period of drying shall not exceed 4 hours and temp shall be 100-110 deg C. - A sample shall be cooled down to room
**temperature**before testing. Take approximately 6 kgs of a sample. - The quantity of the sample shall be such that the depth of material in the cylinder after tamping shall be 10cms.
- The cylinder shall be filled up in 3 layers, and each layer shall be tamped 25 times with tamping rod and finally leveled off.
- The weight of the material comprising the test sample shall be determin.
- The plunger shall be placed in position, and the apparatus shall be then placed between the platens of CTM.
- The load shall be applied at a uniform rate so that the load of 40T is reached in 10 minutes.
- The load shall be removed from the cylinder, and the crushed sample shall be sieved through 2.36 mm sieve. The fraction passing sieve 2.36 mm shall be weighed to nearest 1gm.
- Such two tests shall be taken for each lot.

**Calculation & Records ****of Aggregate Crushing Value**

- Aggregate Crushing Value, % = (B / A) x100
- The mean of the two results shall be reported to the nearest whole

Also read : Core cutter method

**Impact Value of Coarse Aggregate**

**Aim of Impact Value of Coarse Aggregate**

To determine the moisture content of coarse aggregate.

- IS code for aggregate testing Is CODE: IS 2386 Part 1,
- IS code for aggregate testing Is CODE: IS 2386 part 4

**Apparatus of Impact Value of Coarse Aggregate**

**Impact testing machine (metal base)**

**A cylindrical steel cup of internal dimension: 102mm & depth 50mm**

**IS sieves of sizes 12.5, 10 & 2.36mm**

**A straight metal tamping rod of circular cross-section 16mm in dia. And 600mm long rounded at one end**.

**The weight balance of 01 gm.**

**A suitable oven thermostatically controlled to maintain a temperature of 100°C to 110°C**

**Procedure of Impact Value of Coarse Aggregate**

- The impact machine shall rest without
**wedging or packing u**pon the level plate. - The cup shall be fixed firmly in position on the base of the machine and whole of the test sample placed in it subject to fifteen blows of the metal hammer of weight 14 kg falling from a height 38 cm.
- The quantity of excellent material passing through 2.36mm resulting from pounding will indicate the toughness of the sample of aggregate. The ratio of the weight of the fines (more beautiful than 2.36mm size) formed to be the weight of the total sample taken is expressed as a percentage. This is known as
**aggregate impact value test**IS 283-1970 **Result:****Aggregate impact value**shall not exceed 45 % by weight for aggregate used for concrete other than wearing surface and 30 % by weight for concrete for wearing surfaces such as runway, roads, and pavements.

Also read : CONSISTENCY TEST OF CEMENT

## Sieve Analysis Test of Coarse Aggregates

**Aim of Sieve Analysis Test of Coarse Aggregates**

- To determine the properties of Coarse aggregate/
**test on coarse aggregate**for size and grading

**Sieve of Analysis Test of Coarse AggregatesScope **

- This procedure covers all relative activity for the project site.

**Apparatus of Sieve Analysis Test of Coarse Aggregates**

**Drying Oven**

**IS Sieves 40 mm, 20 mm, 16 mm, 12.5 mm, 10mm, and pan –***for Analysis of 20 mm metal.*

**Weigh scale to the accuracy of 1gm.**

**Metal trays etc.**

**Procedure of Sieve Analysis Test of Coarse Aggregates**

- Sample of aggregate shall be collected as given earlier.
- Sieves shall be cleaned and arranged in sequence in descending order. Pan shall at the lowermost end and Lid on top.
- Take around 5 kg of sample and dry it in an oven at a temp of 100-110
^{0} - A dried sample shall be then weighed ( 5 kg preferably) and sieved successively on sieves starting with 40mm and then through 4.75mm (For 20 mm down an aggregate size ) and through 2.36 mm (For 12.5/10 mm down an aggregate size).
- Each sieve shall be shaken at least for two minutes on a clean tray until no more trace passes.
- The motion shall be varied like back and forth, left to right, circular clockwise and anti-clockwise and with frequent jarring.
- Material shall not be forced through the mesh. But for coarser than 20mm particles, placing is permitted (passing particles through sieve opening manually).
- Sieves shall be brushed from underneath of mesh and pass on to the next.
- On completion of sieving, material retained on each sieve is to weigh Separately.
- Check for permissible limits for passing.

**Also, Read: Peb Shed Full Form**

**Reporting of Sieve Analysis Test of Coarse Aggregates**

The cumulative % by weight of the total sample passing each sieve, to the nearest whole number.

Or

The % by weight of the total sample passing one sieve and retained on the next Smaller sieve to the nearest 1 decimal.

Check for permissible limits for passing.

## Flakiness Index of Aggregate

**Aim of Flakiness Index of Aggregate**

- To determine the Flakiness of particles of Coarse aggregate /
**test on coarse aggregate**more significant than 6.3 mm in size.

**Scope of Flakiness Index of Aggregate**

- This procedure covers all relative activity for the project site.

**Apparatus ****of Flakiness Index of Aggregate**

- Balance with an accuracy of 0.1% of the weight of a sample
- Flakiness Index Gauge
- All other as per
**Sieve analysis.**

**Sample of Flakiness Index of Aggregate**

- It shall be taken from retained material from Sieve analysis preferably and should
- have at least 200 pieces of each fraction.

**Procedure of Flakiness Index of Aggregate**

**Each sample of 20 mm and 10mm**shall be taken from the retained fraction.- Each fraction shall be the gauge in turn for thickness on the metal gauge.
- The total amount retained on the gauge shall be weighed.

**Calculation & Records of Flakiness Index of Aggregate**

- The flakiness index is the total weight of the material passing the various thickness gauge; expressed as a % of the weight of the total sample gauged.

## Elongation Index of Aggregate

**Aim of Elongation Index of Aggregate**

- To determine the Elongated shape of particles of Coarse Aggregate/test
**on coarse aggregate**greater than 6.3 mm in size.

**Scope of Elongation Index of Aggregate**

- This procedure covers all relative activity for the project site.

**Apparatus of Elongation Index of Aggregate**

- Balance with an accuracy of 0.1% of the weight of the sample
- Elongation Index Gauge
- All other as per Sieve analysis.

**Sample of Elongation Index of Aggregate**

**Procedure of Elongation Index of Aggregate**

- Each sample of 20mm and 10mm metal shall be taken from the retained fraction
- Each fraction shall be gauged in turn for thickness on the metal gauge.
- The total amount passing the gauge shall be weighed.

**Calculation & Records of Elongation Index of Aggregate**

- The Elongation Index the total weight of the material passing the various
- Thickness gauges; expressed as a % of the weight of total sample gauged…

Also read: PROCEDURE FOR RCC CONCRETE

## Compressive Strength Test for Concrete

**Aim of Compressive Strength Test for Concrete**

- To establish the
**Compressive strength**of concrete sample for acceptance

**Apparatus of Compressive Strength Test for Concrete**

**A compressive Testing machine had adequate capacity.**

**Weighing Balance.**

**Measuring Scale.**

**Procedure of Compressive Strength Test for Concrete**

- Remove the cubes required for testing from curing tank wipe
**clean of water and air dry**them to surface dryness. - Stack cubes in sequence as per mix, dates, locations etc.
- Record the actual surface area ( sq cm)of the cube which will be in contact with Platen of
**CTM**( A in cm2 or mm2 ). - Weigh the cubes and record the weights in the registering.
- Place the cube on
**platen centrally**keeping the toweled side in front. - Position the top platen on the cube surface. See that there is no gap left between the cube top and platen.
**Load the CTM**at the desired speed without any shocks. ( Pointer and needle shall move together)- When crushing takes place in the specimen, a needle will start falling back, but the pointer will remain at maximum reading.
- Record the reading shown by pointer viewing perpendicular to the face of the dial. (Load applied in kN or tone- W)
- Relieve the load from CTM. Remove the cube. Clean the platens.
- Check the features of cube failure. Good failure is that cube mass retained shall have concavity on sides. If failures are occurring consistently by crack developing only on one side, it means cubes are eccentrically loaded. If cracks are always developed centrally means point load is getting applied due to the Convexity of platens. Remedial measures are required to be taken for this.

**Calculations of Compressive Strength Test for Concrete**

Compressive Stress ( c ) in N / mm2 or Kg / cm2 as below :

**c = Wx1000 /A in N/mm2 or Kg /cm2**- Average of the set of three or more cubes to be recorded (c’ ).

When three or more cubes from single batch/lot are tested, max variation is allowed +/- 15%. If any cube is showing more variation, a result of that cube is discarded, and an average of two or more is to be taken.

**Recording of Compressive Strength Test for Concrete**

Record is generated as per the sample format is given in chronological order.

**Format to be Used: To be recorded in Cube Register.**

Also read : Mortar Vs Grout | What Is Motor and Grout | Type of Motor and Grout | Difference Between Mortar and Grout

## Above all method of 7 Lab tests on aggregates test of Concrete

### Tests on Aggregates

In order to decide the suitability of the aggregate for use in pavement construction, following tests are carried out:

- Crushing test.
- Abrasion test.
- Impact test.
- Soundness test.
- Shape test.
- Specific gravity and water absorption test.
- Bitumen adhesion test.

### Coarse Aggregate Test

Durability of coarse aggregate is normally evaluated in the **sulfate soundness test and water absorption tests**, and by measuring resistance to impact in the Los Angeles abrasion and impact test. The likely performance of aggregates in granular base is best measured by the micro-Deval test and water absorption.

### Tests on Coarse Aggregate

Following tests are carried out:

- Crushing test.
- Abrasion test.
- Impact test.
- Soundness test.
- Shape test.
- Specific gravity and water absorption test.
- Bitumen adhesion test.

### IS Code for Aggregate Test?

A test is standardized by **IS: 2386 part-IV** and used to determine the crushing strength of aggregates. The aggregate crushing value provides a relative measure of resistance to crushing under gradually applied crushing load.

### IS Code 383 for Aggregates?

This standard covers the requirements for aggregates, crushed or uncrushed, derived from natural sources, such as river terraces and river- beds, glacial deposits, rocks, boulders and gravels, for use in the Production of concrete for normal structural purposes including mass concrete works.

### Why Do We Test Aggregates?

Test aggregate **to determine the quality of material**. Doing a simple visual test is inadequate. Aggregate quality is based on gradation, fines content, and plasticity. Select good quality aggregates to improve construction materials and reduce maintenance.

### What Is the Test of Aggregate?

The usual tests to control the quality of aggregates in California are **grading, speci- fic gravity, unit weight, absorption, soundness, Los Angeles rattler, R-value, clean- ness, and sand equivalent**. Generally, not all of these tests are applied to any one aggregate product.

### What Is Elongated Aggregate?

When **the length of aggregate is larger than the other two dimensions** then it is called elongated aggregate or the length of aggregate is greater than 180% of its mean dimension.

### What Are Aggregates Used For?

Aggregate, in building and construction, material used for mixing with cement, bitumen, lime, gypsum, or other adhesive to form concrete or mortar. The aggregate gives **volume, stability, resistance to wear or erosion**, and other desired physical properties to the finished product.

### What Is Aggregate Impact Test?

The aggregate impact test value is **a measure of resistance to sudden impact or shock**, which may vary from its resistance to gradually applied compressive load.

### IS Sieves for Coarse Aggregate?

The sieves normally used are the standard 8 inch (200 mm) sieves. With **Fine Aggregate** the coarse sieve or the 3/8” (9.5 mm) sieve at the top; each sieve below is finer; and the finest sieve, a No. 200 (75 µm) is at the bottom.

### What Is the Types of Aggregates?

The Different Types Of Aggregate. The categories of aggregates include **gravel, sand, recycled concrete, slag, topsoil, ballast, Type 1 MOT, and geosynthetic aggregates** (synthetic products commonly used in civil engineering projects used to stabilise terrain).

### How Do You Test for Aggregation?

In order to decide the suitability of the aggregate for use in pavement construction, following tests are carried out.

- Crushing test.
- Abrasion test.
- Impact test.
- Soundness test.
- Shape test.
- Specific gravity and water absorption test.
- Bitumen adhesion test.

### What Are the Sizes of Aggregate?

Coarse Aggregate |
Size |

Fine gravel | 4mm – 8mm |

Medium gravel | 8mm – 16mm |

Coarse gravel | 16mm – 64mm |

Cobbles | 64mm – 256mm |

Boulders | >256mm |

### What Is Aggregate Crushing Test?

The crushing value test of aggregate **provides the resistance of an aggregate sample to crushing under gradually applied compressive load**. Generally, the test is conducted on aggregate passing 12.5 mm and retained on a 10 mm sieve.

### How Do You Test Fine Aggregates?

The fine aggregate specific gravity test is used to **calculate the specific gravity of a fine aggregate sample by determining the ratio of the weight of a given volume of aggregate to the weight of an equal volume of water**. It is similar in nature to the coarse aggregate specific gravity test.

### What Is Aggregates and Its Types?

Aggregate is a landscaping term that’s used to **describe coarse to medium grain material**. The most common types of aggregate that are used in landscaping include: crushed stone, gravel, sand, and fill. Varying in material and stone size, each type can have its own purpose when it comes to landscaping projects.

### What Is the Strength of Aggregate?

Tests on prepared rock samples are little used, but the average value of crushing strength of such samples is about 200 MPa, although many excellent aggregates range in strength down **to 80 MPa.**

### What Is Soundness Test Aggregate?

Soundness is **the percentage loss of material from an aggregate blend during the sodium or** magnesium sulfate soundness test. This test, which is specified in ASTM C88 and AASHTO T104, estimates the resistance of aggregate to in-service weathering. It can be performed on both coarse and fine aggregate.

### Why Aggregate Impact Test Is Done?

Determination of Aggregate Impact Value Impact Test on Aggregates is done to carry out to: Determine the impact value of the road aggregates, Assess their suitability in road construction on the basis of impact value.

### What Is Grading Curve of Aggregate?

The grading curve graphically represents **the proportion of different grain sizes which the aggregate is composed of and which form part of the shotcrete mix**. It provides useful information to find out: Whether the distribution of the different aggregate sizes is suitable for pumping.

### What Is Good Grading of Aggregates?

Grading refers to **the determination of the particle-size distribution for aggregate**. Grading limits and maximum aggregate size are specified because these properties affect the amount of aggregate used as well as cement and water requirements, workability, pumpability, and durability of concrete.

### What Is Meant by Coarse Aggregate?

Coarse aggregates are **any particles greater than 0.19 inch**, but generally range between 3/8 and 1.5 inches in diameter. Gravels constitute the majority of coarse aggregate used in concrete with crushed stone making up most of the remainder.

### What Is Specific Gravity of Aggregate?

Specific Gravity is **the ratio of the weight of a given volume of aggregate to the weight of an equal volume of water**. Water, at a temperature of 73.4°F (23°C) has a specific gravity of 1. Specific Gravity is important for several reasons. Some deleterious particles are lighter than the good aggregates.

### IS Code for Bulk Density of Aggregate?

Bulk Density of Aggregates, IS: **2386** (Part- III) – 1963.

### What Is Fine Aggregate with Example?

**Sand, surki, stone screenings, burnt clays, cinders, fly ash**, etc are used as fine aggregate in concrete. Brick chips (broken bricks), stone chips (broken stones), gravels, pebbles, clinkers, cinders etc. are used as coarse aggregate in concrete.

### Which Aggregate Is Best for Concrete?

**Gravel or broken stone aggregates with rough and non-glassy texture** are the best aggregates because they create a good bond with the cement paste. Aggregates need to be hard, strong, chemically inert, and non-porous. Organic substances and dirt coating compromise the strength and durability of concrete.

### How Do You Find Density of Aggregate?

For aggregates, density is determined by **multiplying the relative density (specific gravity) of the aggregate times the density of water.**

### How Many Tests Are There in Concrete?

Methods for Testing Compressive Strength of Concrete.

- Rebound Hammer or Schmidt Hammer (ASTM C805)
- Penetration Resistance Test (ASTM C803)
- Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (ASTM C597)
- Pullout Test (ASTM C900)
- Drilled Core (ASTM C42)
- Cast-in-place Cylinders (ASTM C873)
- Wireless Maturity Sensors (ASTM C1074)

### IS Test Procedure for Coarse Aggregate?

The test sample consists of **aggregates sized 10.0 mm 12.5 mm**. Aggregates may be dried by heating at 100-110° C for a period of 4 hours and cooled. Sieve the material through 12.5 mm and 10.0mm IS sieves. The aggregates passing through 12.5mm sieve and retained on 10.0mm sieve comprises the test material.

### What Is the Ideal Grading of Aggregates?

**4.16 to 4.19**. The grading curve of any fine aggregate falling wholly within the limits of any one zone is considered suitable.

### What Is the Sieve Size of Fine Aggregate?

The sieves normally used are the standard 8 inch (200 mm) sieves. With Fine Aggregate the coarse sieve or the **3/8” (9.5 mm)** sieve at the top; each sieve below is finer; and the finest sieve, a No. 200 (75 µm) is at the bottom. A pan is placed below to retain any fine material that may pass this sieve.

### Can You Have a Negative Specific Gravity?

This fact highlights the utility of the usage of submerged specific gravity in problems involving buoyancy and force balances on submerged objects: **the object will naturally rise when its submerged specific gravity is negative**, and sink when its submerged specific gravity is positive.

### Which Aggregate Is Best for Construction?

- The typical coarse aggregate size ranges from 4.75 mm to 18 mm.
- Gravel or broken stone aggregates with rough and non-glassy texture are the best aggregates because they create a good bond with the cement paste.
- Aggregates need to be hard, strong, chemically inert, and non-porous.
- Organic substances and dirt coating compromise the strength and durability of concrete.

### What Is the Maximum Size of Aggregate?

The smallest sieve opening through which the entire amount of aggregate is permitted to pass. coarse aggregate MUST pass the **1.5”** sieve but 95 – 100% MAY pass the 1” sieve, therefore # 57 aggregate is considered to have a Maximum size of 1.5” and an Nominal Maximum size of 1″.

### What Is the Density of Coarse Aggregate?

The relative density is a ratio that describes the density of the aggregate relative to the density of water. A typical range for natural coarse aggregate is 2.4 to 2.9, meaning that the coarse aggregate is **2.4 to 2.9 times the density of water.**

### What Is an Example of Coarse Aggregate?

Coarse aggregates are a construction component made of rock quarried from ground deposits. Examples of these kinds of ground deposits include **river gravel**, crushed stone from rock quarries, and previously used concrete. Coarse aggregates are generally categorized as rock larger than a standard no.

### What Are the 4 Main Types of Aggregates?

Aggregate is a landscaping term that’s used to describe coarse to medium grain material. The most common types of aggregate that are used in landscaping include: **crushed stone, gravel, sand, and fill**. Varying in material and stone size, each type can have its own purpose when it comes to landscaping projects.

### How Is Absorption of Aggregate Calculated?

The aggregates should be weighed (Weight ‘A’). iv) The aggregates should then be placed in an oven at a temperature of 100 to 110^{o}C for 24hrs. It should then be removed from the oven, cooled and weighed (Weight ‘B’). Formula used is **Water absorption = [(A – B)/B] x 100%.**

### How Many Types of Aggregate Test Are There?

Property of Aggregate |
Type of Test |
Test Method |

Crushing strength | Crushing test | IS : 2386 (part 4) |

Hardness | Los Angeles abrasion test | IS : 2386 (Part 5) |

Toughness | Aggregate impact test | IS : 2386 (Part 4) |

Durability | Soundness test | IS : 2386 (Part 5) |

Shape factors | Shape test | IS : 2386 (Part 1) |

Specific gravity and porosity | Specific gravity test and water absorption test | IS : 2386 (Part 3) |

Adhesion to bitumen | Stripping value of aggregate | IS : 6241-1971 |

### What Are the Properties of Coarse Aggregate?

Coarse aggregate shall consist of naturally occurring materials such as gravel, or resulting from the crushing of parent rock, to include natural rock, slags, expanded clays and shales (lightweight aggregates) and other approved inert materials with similar characteristics, having hard, stronng, durable particles, conforming to the specific requirements of this Section.

### What Is Water Absorption of Coarse Aggregate?

Water absorption of aggregates is **the % of water absorbed by an air-dried aggregate when immersed in water at 27°C for a period of 24 hours**. The water absorption test uses to find the water holding capacity of the aggregates.

### What Is the Different Tests on Coarse Aggregate?

Durability of coarse aggregate is normally evaluated in the **sulfate soundness test and water absorption tests**, and by measuring resistance to impact in the Los Angeles abrasion and impact test. These tests suffer from some disadvantages: poor precision and inadequate correlation with field performance.

### How Do You Calculate Aggregate Crushing Value?

**= (W2 x 100) / (W1-W)**

W1-W =Weight of surface dry sample. The mean of two result to nearest whole number is the aggregate crushing value.

### How Do You Find the Density of Coarse Aggregate?

If the volume is unit then, **Bulk Density= Mass.** **Unit** in kg/m^{3} or lb/ft^{3}. In this definition, the volume is that contains both the aggregates and the voids between aggregates particles. The approximate bulk density of aggregate that is commonly used in normal-weight concrete is between 1200-1750 kg/m^{3} (75-110 lb/ft^{3}).

### Which Type of Aggregates Gives Good Workability?

The aggregates which gives more ease of working and workability is **round aggregate, flaky and angular** also used in some cases, irregular also are used in pavements. = 7.14%.

### What Is the Importance of Aggregate Impact Value?

Aggregate Impact Value test determines the Aggregate Impact Value (AIV) of aggregates which **provides a relative measure of the resistance of an aggregate to sudden shock or impact**. Resistance of the aggregates to impact is termed as toughness.

### What Is the Purpose of Specific Gravity of Aggregate?

The specific gravity of aggregates **indirectly measures its density**; hence it is the most essential parameter of strength or quality of the aggregates. Higher the specific gravity, higher is the strength.

### How Do You Calculate Water Absorption of Aggregate?

Formula used is **Water absorption = [(A – B)/B] x 100%.**

### How Do You Find the Maximum Size of Coarse Aggregate?

Nominal Maximum Size: The **smallest sieve opening through which the entire amount of aggregate is permitted to pass**. coarse aggregate MUST pass the 1.5” sieve but 95 – 100% MAY pass the 1” sieve, therefore # 57 aggregate is considered to have a Maximum size of 1.5” and an Nominal Maximum size of 1”.

### What Is the Range of Specific Gravity of Coarse Aggregate?

The specific gravity of aggregates normally used in construction ranges from **about 2.5 to 3.0** with an average value of about 2.68.

### What Is the Test Required for the Shape of the Aggregates?

It is no surprise that this is by far the most common and primary test to be performed on an aggregate sample. As most of these aggregate characterization tests, it is not difficult to perform properly and can be conducted effectively by technicians with minimal training.

### Which Property of Aggregate Is Measured by Crushing Test?

**The strength of coarse aggregates** is assessed by aggregates crushing test. The aggregate crushing value provides a relative measure of resistance to crushing under a gradually applied compressive load. To achieve a high quality of pavement, aggregate possessing low aggregate crushing value should be preferred.

### How Do You Measure Moisture Content of Coarse Aggregate?

Do not use the combined weight of the sample container plus the aggregate sample. Then **divide the weight of the moisture held by the aggregate by the weight of the sufficiently dried sample**. Then multiply this value by 100. The resulting value is the aggregate moisture content as a percent.

### What Are the Two Most Common Types of Concrete Aggregates?

Aggregates, which account for 60 to 75 percent of the total volume of concrete, are divided into two distinct categories**–fine and coarse**. Fine aggregates generally consist of natural sand or crushed stone with most particles passing through a 3/8-inch sieve.

### How Can You Determine If the Coarse Aggregate Is in Ssd Condition?

The coarse aggregate specific gravity test measures coarse aggregate weight under three different sample conditions:

- Oven-dry (no water in sample).
- Saturated surface-dry (SSD, water fills the aggregate pores).
- Submerged in water (underwater).

Using these three weights and their relationships, a sample’s apparent specific gravity, bulk specific gravity and bulk SSD specific gravity as well as absorption can be calculated.

### What Is the Is Code for the Specification of Coarse and Fine Aggregate?

**354/1949** – Standard Specification (Coarse and Fine Aggregates From Natural Sources For Concrete) Order, 1949. S.I.

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