What Is Column?
Important Point
A compression member, i.e., column, is an important element of every reinforced concrete structure. These are used to transfer a load of superstructure to the foundation safely.
Mainly columns, struts, and pedestals are used as compression members in buildings, bridges, supporting systems of tanks, factories, and many more such structures.
A column is defined as a vertical compression member who is mainly subjected to the effective length and axial loads of which exceeds three times its least lateral dimension.
The compression member whose effective length is less than three times its least lateral dimension is called Pedestal. The compression member who is inclined or horizontal and is subjected to axial loads is called Strut. Struts are used in trusses.
The function of columns is to transfer the load of the structure vertically downwards to transfer it to a foundation. Apart from the wall performs the following functions also:
 It encloses building areas into different compartments and provides privacy.
 It provides safety from burglary and insects.
 It keeps the building warm in cools in summer and winter.
Also, read: What Is Pier Foundation  Types of Drilled Piers  Advantages and Disadvantages of Drilled Pier Foundations
What Is Beam?
The beam is a structural element that stands against the bending. Mainly beam carries vertical gravitational forces, but also pull the horizontal loads on it.
The beam is called a wall plate or sill plate that carries the transmits and load it to the girders, columns, or walls. It is attached with.
In the early centuries, timbers were the most preferred material to be used as a beam for this structural support purpose, now to bear the force along with carrying vertical gravitational force, now they are made up of aluminum, steel, or other such materials.
In actual means, beams are structural materials, which bear the sheer force of the load and the bending moment.
To carry on the more tension and load, prestressed concrete beams are widely used nowadays in the foundation of bridges and other such humongous structures.
Several famous beams used nowadays are supported Beam, Fixed Beam, Cantilever Beam, Continuous Beam, Overhanging Beam.
Also, Read: Does Concrete Bond to Concrete
What is Wall?
Wall is a structural element that divides the space (room) into two spaces (rooms) and also provides safety and shelter. Generally, the wall is differentiated as two types of outerwall and innerwall.
Outerwalls give an enclosure to the house for shelter, and innerwalls help to partition the enclosure into the required number of rooms. Inner walls are also called as Partition walls.
Walls are built to partition the living area into different parts.
They impart privacy and protection against temperature, rain, and theft.
Also, read: What Is Plaster  Type of Plaster  Defects In Plastering
What Is Slab?
A slab is constructed to provide flat surfaces, typically horizontal, in building roofs, floors, bridges, and other types of structures.
The slab could be supported by walls, by reinforced concrete beams normally cast monolithically with the slab, by structural steel beams, either by columns or from the ground.
A slab is a plate element having a depth (D), very small as compared to its length and width. A slab is used as floor or roof in buildings, carry distribution load uniformly.
Slab May Be
 Simply Supported.
 Continuos.
 Cantilever.
Different Load Calculation on Column, Beam, Wall & Slab
 Column = Self Weight x Number of floors
 Beams = Self Weight per running meter
 Wall Load Per Running Meter
 Total Load on Slab (Dead Load + Live Load +Wind Load + SelfWeight)
Besides this above loading, the columns are also subjected to bending moments that have to be considered in the final design.
These tools are reduced laborious and consuming method of manual calculations for structural design, this is highly recommended nowadays in the field.
The most effective method for designing structure is to use advanced structural design software like STAAD Pro or ETABS.
For professional structural design practice, there are some basic assumptions we use for structural loading calculations.
Also, read: Introduction of Gantry Girder  Load on Gantry Gutter  Type of Load on Gantry Gutter
Load Calculation on Column:
We know that the Selfweight of Concrete is around 2400 kg/m^{3}, which is equivalent to 24.54 kn/m^{3}and the Selfweight of Steel is around 7850 kg/m^{3}. ( Note: 1 Kilonewton Is Equal to 101.9716 Kilograms)
So, if we assume a column size of 300 mm x 600 mm with 1% steel and 2.55 (why 2.55 so, 3 m column hight – beam size) meters standard height, the selfweight of the column is around 1000 kg per floor, that id equal to 10 kN.
Also Read: Area of Steel Formula in Rcc
How to Load Calculation on Column?
 Size of column Height 2.55 m, Length = 300 mm, Width = 600 mm
 Volume of Concrete = 0.30 x 0.60 x 2.55 =0.459 m³
 Weight of Concrete = 0.459 x 2400 = 1101.60 kg
 Weight of Steel (1%) in Concrete = 0.459 x 1% x 7850 = 36.03 kg
 Total Weight of Column = 1101.60 + 36.03 = 1137.63 kg = 11.12 KN
While doing calculations, we assume the self weight of columns is between 10 to 12 kN per floor.
Also, Read: Cost of 1 Bag of Cement
Beam Load Calculation:
We adopt the same method of calculations for beam also.
We assume each meter of the beam has dimensions of 300 mm x 600 mm excluding slab thickness.
Assume each (1m) meter of the beam has dimension
How to Beam Load Calculation?
 300 mm x 600 mm excluding slab.
 Volume of Concrete = 0.30 x 0.60 x 1 =0.18 m³
 Weight of Concrete = 0.18 x 2400 = 432 kg
 Weight of Steel (2%) in Concrete = 0.18 x 2% x 7850 = 28.26 kg
 Total Weight of Column = 432 + 28.26 = 460.26 kg/m = 4.51 KN/m
So, the selfweight will be around 4.51 kN per running meter.
Also, read: Difference Between Bitumen and Tar  What Is Bitumen  What Is Tar
How to Wall Load Calculation:
Here, the follows steps for wall loading calculations
 we, know that the Density of bricks varies between 1800 to 2000 kg/m^{3}.
 For a 9 inch (230 mm) thick Brick wall of 3.55meter height and a length of 1 meter,
 The load / running meter to be equal to 0.230 x 1 x 2.55 x 2000 = 1173 kg/meter,
 which is equivalent to 11.50 kN/meter.
This method can be adopted for load calculations of Brick per running meter for any brick type using this technique.
For aerated concrete blocks and autoclaved concrete (ACC) blocks, like Aerocon or Siporex, the weight per cubic meter is between 550 to 650 kg per cubic meter.
 The load/running meter to be equal to 0.230 x 1 x 3.55 x 650= 530.725 kg
If you are using these blocks for construction, the wall loads per running meter can be as low as 5.20 kN/meter, use of this block can significantly reduce the cost of the project.
Also, Read: Best Tiles Company in India
How to Slab Load Calculation:
 Let, Assume the slab has a thickness of 150 mm.
 So, the Selfweight of each square meter of the slab would be
 Slab Load Calculation = 0.150 x 1 x 2400 = 360 kg which is equivalent to 3.53 kN.
 Now, If we consider the Floor Finishing load to be 1 kN per meter, superimposed live load to be 2 kN per meter, and Wind Load as per Is 875 Near about 2 kN per meter.
So, from the above data, we can estimate the slab load to be around 8 to 9 kN per square meter.
 Column Design Calculations PDF: Click Here
 Steel Structure Design Calculation PDF: Click Here
 How to Calculate Load of a Building PDF
Steel Beam Span Calculator Free
How to Load Calculation Column Beam Wall Slab
Load Calculation on Column / Column Calculation
 Volume of Concrete = 0.23 x 0.60 x 3 =0.414m³
 Weight of Concrete = 0.414 x 2400 = 993.6 kg
 Weight of Steel (1%) in Concrete = 0.414 x 0.01 x 8000 = 33 kg
 Total Weight of Column = 994 + 33 = 1026 kg = 10KN
Wall Load Calculation
Here is some information about calculating wall load:
 The formula for partition wall load is: wall thickness x wall density x wall height
 For a 6″ thick wall of 3 meter height and a length of 1 meter, the load per running meter is 900 kg, or 9 kN/meter
 To calculate the volume of a brick wall, you can use the formula: l × b × h
 The density of a brick wall with mortar is between 16002200 kg/m3
 The allowable wall load for a concrete slab is Pc = lb./ft
 The formula for the maximum wall load for a concrete slab is P = 9.93 ( fc^0.5 )( te^2 ) ( ( k / (19000 ( fc^0.5 )( te^3 ) ) )
Beam Load Calculation
 300 mm x 600 mm excluding slab thickness.
 Volume of Concrete = 0.30 x 0.60 x 1 =0.18 m³
 Weight of Concrete = 0.18 x 2400 = 432 kg
 Weight of Steel (2%) in Concrete = 0.18 x 2% x 7850 = 28.26 kg
 Total Weight of Column = 432 + 28.26 = 460.26 kg/m = 4.51 KN/m
Column Load
A column is a vertical compression member that helps transfer a building’s load to the foundation. Columns carry all the loads transferred by the beams on top of it, and also directly carry the lateral loads (earthquake, wind loads, etc.). Columns transmit those carried loads to the foundation which is located beneath the ground surface.
The load on a column can be a live load or a dead load. Dead load is the result of the weight of the permanent components such as beams, floor slabs, columns and walls. These components will produce the same constant ‘dead’ load during the lifespan of the building. Dead loads are exerted in the vertical plane.
The axial load carrying capacity of a column is based on the formula Pu =0.4 fck Ac + 0.67 fy Asc as per IS 4562000. Here in the Table P is Axial Load Carrying capacity of column in KN.
Dead Load Calculation for a Building
Dead load = volume of member x unit weight of materials.
The dead load of a building is calculated by multiplying the volume of each member by the unit weight of the material it is made from. The dead load of each component can then be added together to determine the total dead load of the building.
The customary dead load for floors is 1012 pounds per square foot (PSF), 1215 PSF for roof rafters, and 20 PSF for roof trusses. However, these numbers may increase when heavy finish materials, such as brick veneer walls or tile floors/roofs, are specified.
Column Design Calculations
 Volume of Concrete = 0.23 x 0.60 x 3 =0.414m³
 Weight of Concrete = 0.414 x 2400 = 993.6 kg
 Weight of Steel (1%) in Concrete = 0.414x 0.01 x 8000 = 33 kg
 Total Weight of Column = 994 + 33 = 1026 kg = 10KN
Column design calculations include determining the dimensions of the column, such as the shape, length, and width of the crosssection. You also need to find the diameters of the reinforcing bars.
Here are some basic rules for column sizes:
 Minimum column size should be 9”X9” (230mmX230mm)
 Minimum bar diameter is 12mm
 Grade of the concrete should be at least M20
 Concrete cover is taken in between 25mm to 50mm values
 If possible, use square columns only
 At least take 4 no’s of bars in column
The axial load carrying capacity of a column is calculated using the formula Pu =0.4 fck Ac + 0.67 fy Asc. In this formula, P is the axial load carrying capacity of the column in KN, p is the percentage of steel, b is the breadth of the column in mm, and D is the depth of the column in mm.
Footing Load Calculations
Footing load calculations are used to determine the size of a footing. The size of the footing can vary depending on the structure, site, and conditions.
To calculate the load, you can use 40 lbs per square foot for live loads (such as the weight of people and furniture) and 15 lbs per square foot for dead loads (the weight of the materials used for the construction of the deck).
You can also use a calculator to calculate the load. For example, the FootingPad calculator prefills the dead weight load of a common steelroofed at 5 lbs. per square foot.
You can also calculate the size of the footing by dividing the total load at the column base by the allowable bearing capacity of the soil.
Concrete Slab Load Calculations
 Size of Slab Length 3 m x 2 m Thickness 0.150 m
 Concrete Volume = 3 x 2 x 0.15 =0.9 m³
 Concrete weight = 0.9 x 2400 = 2160 kg.
To calculate the load of a concrete slab, you can use the following formula:
Wt = L•W•D•mD
Where Wt is the weight of the slab, L is the length, W is the width, D is the depth, and mD is the density of the concrete.
You can also calculate the slab load by adding the selfweight, finishing load, and superimposed live load. The selfweight is calculated by multiplying the slab thickness by the unit weight of the concrete. The finishing load is usually 1 kN per meter, and the superimposed live load is usually 2 kN per meter.
Steel Load Calculation
 Size of Slab Length 3 m x 2 m Thickness 0.150 m
 Concrete Volume = 3 x 2 x 0.15 =0.9 m³
 Concrete weight = 0.9 x 2400 = 2160 kg.
 Steel weight (1%) in Concrete = 0.9 x 0.01 x 7850 = 70.38 kg.
 Total Column weight= 2160 + 70.38 = 2230.38 kg/m = 21.87 KN/m.
Here is some information on steel load calculation:
 To calculate the weight of a steel bar, you can use the formula D^2/162, where D is the diameter of the bar and 162 is a constant.
 To calculate the weight of a steel plate, you can use the formula width * length * thickness * density.
 To calculate the dead load for a steel beam, you can use the formula volume of member * unit weight of materials.
 To calculate the load of a beam from a slab, you can divide the slab into trapezoidal and triangular areas, and then multiply the segment area by the slab’s unit load divided by the beam length.
How to Calculate Load on Beam
The load on a beam can be calculated by multiplying the segment area (trapezoidal or triangular area) by the slab’s unit load divided by the beam length. The total load on a beam is the UDL multiplied by the length of the beam.
The loads on a beam can be point loads, distributed loads, or varying loads. There can also be point moments on the beam. The beam itself is supported at one or more points.
Beam Load Calculation Formula
 300 mm x 600 mm excluding slab.
 Volume of Concrete = 0.30 x 0.60 x 1 =0.18 m³
 Weight of Concrete = 0.18 x 2400 = 432 kg
 Weight of Steel (2%) in Concrete = 0.18 x 2% x 7850 = 28.26 kg
 Total Weight of Column = 432 + 28.26 = 460.26 kg/m = 4.51 KN/m
Wall Beam
A wall beam is a horizontal member that spans an opening and carries a load, such as a brick or stone wall. Wall beams are often used to replace loadbearing walls. The most common support system used to replace a loadbearing wall is a beam under the ceiling and columns or posts which carry the weight down to the foundation. This method is popular because it does not require alterations to joists or framing above the beam.
Dead Load Formula
The formula for calculating dead load is:
The formula for Dead load = volume of member x unit weight of materials
Dead load is the selfweight of a structure. It is usually measured in pounds per square foot. Dead loads consist of the permanent construction material loads, including the roof, floor, wall, and foundation systems, as well as claddings, finishes, and fixed equipment.
Slab Base of Column Is Used for Loads
A slab base is a type of column base used to transfer loads from a column to a concrete pedestal. Slab bases are used when the column is subjected to only direct loads of less intensity and no bending moment.
A slab base consists of a thick steel base plate and two cleat angles that connect the flanges of the column to the base plate. Web cleats are also provided to connect the web of the column to the base plate.
The slabcolumn connection system is typically designed to withstand the forces generated by gravity loads such as the weight of the structure, people, furniture, and other equipment. It may also need to withstand lateral loads such as wind and earthquake forces.
How to Calculate Dead Load?
To calculate dead load, you can use the formula: Dead load = volume of member x unit weight of materials
You can calculate the dead load of each component by multiplying the volume of each member by the unit weight of the materials from which it is composed.
For example, to calculate the dead load of a concrete slab, you can multiply the volume of the concrete element by the concrete unit weight.
The Load Acting on the Column Is
The loads applied to a column are only axial loads. Loads on columns are typically applied at the ends of the member, producing axial compressive stresses. However, on occasion the loads acting on a column can include axial forces, transverse forces, and bending moments (e.g. beamcolumns).
Design Load Formula
The load /meter is = 0.230 x 1 x 3 x 2000 = 1380 kg or 13 kN/meter. This process can be used for Brick’s load calculations per meter for any type of brick. For AAC blocks (Autoclaved Aerated Concrete) the weight per cubic meter is about 550 to 700 kg/m^{3}
Live Load Calculator
L=Lo∗(0.25+15/SQRT(KLL∗At))
 Where L is the reduced design live load per ft^{2}
 L0 is the unreduced design live load per ft^{2}
 KLL is the live load element factor
 At is the tributary area (ft^{2})
Beam and Slab
An RCC beam is provided within the slab, which depth is equal to the slab depth refers to the hidden beam. It also refers to a flat beam or concealed beam. The hidden beam forms an integral part of the frame structure and is usually used.
Live Load Formula
For the floor live loads, use the ASCE 716 equations to check for the possibility of a reduction. Lo=40Ib/ft^{2} (from Table 4.1 in ASCE 716). If the interior column KLL=4, then the influence area A1=KLLAT=(4)(900ft^{2})=3600ft^{2}.
How to Calculate Load of a Building?
For calculating the dead load of the building, we have to determine the volume of each member like footing, column, beam, slab and wall and multiplied by unit weight of material from which it is made. By adding the dead load of all structural components, we can determine the total dead load of the building.
How to Calculate Live Load?
Dividing the actual load distribution into the length of the beam will give you the uniformly distributed load in kilonewton per meter. To use in design these service loads should be multiplied by the ULS factor, 1.2 for Dead Loads and 1.6 for Live Loads.
Structural Load Calculation Example
 300 mm x 450 mm excluding slab thickness.
 Concrete Volume = 0.3 x 0.60 x 1 =0.138m³
 Concrete weight = 0.138 x 2400 = 333 kg.
 Steel weight (2%) in Concrete = = 0.138 x 0.02 x 7850 = 22 kg.
 Total Column weight= 333 + 22 = 355 kg/m = 3.5 KN/m.
Beam Load Calculator

Live Load Calculation
Dividing the actual load distribution into the length of the beam will give you the uniformly distributed load in kilonewton per meter. To use in design these service loads should be multiplied by the ULS factor, 1.2 for Dead Loads and 1.6 for Live Loads.
How to Calculate Column Size for Building?
 In rectangular or or square columns, one side will be usually equal to width of the wall usually 230mm or 300mm.
 Other side will be usually provided based on form work available usually 230mm, 300mm, 375mm, 450mm, 600mm.
Slab and Beam
An RCC beam is provided within the slab, which depth is equal to the slab depth refers to the hidden beam. It also refers to a flat beam or concealed beam. The hidden beam forms an integral part of the frame structure and is usually used.
Floor Finish Load
Floor finish load is also one type of dead load which is act on a floor slab. Floor finish load includes the weight of tiles and other materials. Generally, in structural design floor finish load should be taken as 1.5kN/m^{2}.
Column Load Calculation
 Concrete Volume = 0.3 x 0.60 x 3 =0.54m³
 Concrete Weight = 0.54 x 2400 = 1296 kg.
 Steel Weight (1%) in Concrete = 0.54 x 0.01 x 7850 = 42.39 kg.
 Total Column Weight = 1296 + 42.39 = 1338.39 kg = 13.384KN.
Steel Structure Design Calculation
 Weight of Square Steel bar in kgs/m = volume of steel bar x Density of steel dimension in meters
 Weight of Square Steel bar in kgs/m = area of bar x Density of steel dimension in mm.
Concrete Slab Load Capacity Calculator
 Loads on the RCC Slab: Selfweight= concrete unit weight * Volume of concrete
 Loads on the Beam: Selfweight= concrete unit weight* beam width*beam height
 Compute Applied Moment: Applied moment (Mu)= (Wu * l2)/10
 Compute Resistant Moment: Reinforcement area (As) = ((PI/4)*D2)* No. of bars
Live Load Calculation Formula
 Total Dead Loads (e.g., selfweight and SDL)= (6.25+6) kN/m^{2} = 12.25 kN/m^{2}.
 Total Live Load = 2 kN/m^{2}.
Live Load and Dead Load Calculation
Let, Assume the slab has a thickness of 150 mm. Slab Load Calculation = 0.150 x 1 x 2400 = 360 kg which is equivalent to 3.53 kN. Now, If we consider the Floor Finishing load to be 1 kN per meter, superimposed live load to be 2 kN per meter, and Wind Load as per Is 875 Near about 2 kN per meter.
Dead Load of Slab
Dead load on a structure is the result of the weight of the permanent components such as beams, floor slabs, columns and walls. These components will produce the same constant ‘dead’ load during the lifespan of the building. Dead loads are exerted in the vertical plane.
Load Distribution from Slab to Beam
The slab is commonly divided into trapezoidal and triangular areas by drawing lines from each corner of the rectangle at 45 degrees. The beam’s distributed load is computed by multiplying the segment area (trapezoidal or triangular area) by the slab’s unit load divided by the beam length.
Structural Design Calculations
So, what are structural calculations? They are the math behind your building’s ability to stay upright. Engineers use them to determine the loads that a building must withstand and the properties of members that comprise its structure.
Factored Load Formula
Calculate load factor by dividing the total square footage building by the usable square footage. In this example, you would take 6500 square feet – the total square footage of the building – and divide it by 5500 – the usable square footage of the building.
Dead Load Calculator
Formula. DL = V * D. Volume. Cubic Meter m^{3}
Load Carrying Capacity Is More in Which Column
Steel concrete composite columns such as concreteencased steel (CES) and concretefilled steel tube (CFT) columns have large loadcarrying capacity and high local stability due to composite action, and highstrength materials improve structural safety and space efficiency.
Load Distribution from Slab to Beam Formula
The beam’s distributed load is computed by multiplying the segment area (trapezoidal or triangular area) by the slab’s unit load divided by the beam length.
Floor Finish Load on Slab
Floor finish load on slab is also one type of dead load which is act on a floor slab. Floor finish load includes the weight of tiles and other materials. Generally, in structural design floor finish load should be taken as 1.5kN/m^{2}.
Wall Beam Design
In building construction, a beam is a horizontal member spanning an opening and carrying a load that may be a brick or stone wall above the opening, in which case the beam is often called a lintel (see postandlintel system).
What Is a Partition Wall?
A partition wall is a divider wall, typically non load bearing, used to separate spaces in residential, commercial, and industrial buildings. It’s most common use is as an office partition wall used to create separate offices or meeting rooms.
What Is a Slab Basement?
Slab: What is it? The most simple of the three types of foundations, a slab is simply a concrete foundation around one foot in depth below the house reinforced with steel bars. It is no surprise that it is the cheapest foundation that we will cover in this article.
What Is Dry Wall Made Of?
Drywall, also known as plasterboard or wallboard, consists of two paperboards that sandwich gypsum, a powdery white or gray sulfate mineral. Gypsum is noncombustible, and compared to other wall materials, like solid wood and plaster, gypsum boards are much lighter and cheaper.
Building Load Calculation
For calculating the dead load of the building, we have to determine the volume of each member like footing, column, beam, slab and wall and multiplied by the unit weight of the material from which it is made. By adding the dead load of all structural components, we can determine the total dead load of the building.
Beam Calculations
To calculate the maximum bending moment on a beam, the following formula can be used:
M = Wl^2/8
Where:
M = maximum bending moment
W = total load on the beam
l = length of the beam
To calculate the maximum deflection of a beam, the following formula can be used:
δ = (5Wl^4)/(384EI)
Structural Design Calculations Example
Assume we have a steel beam that needs to span 20 feet and support a load of 10 kips (10,000 lbs) at the center. The beam will be supported at each end by a steel column.
Slab Load Calculation Formula
Types of load Calculation on Column, Beam, Wall, and Slab
 Column’s selfweight × Numbers of floors.
 Beam’s selfweight per running meter.
 Wall load per running meter.
 The total load on slab = Dead Load( due to storing furniture and other things) + Live load ( due to human movement)+ Self Weight.
Load Calculation Formula for Building
Load Calculation of Beam
 300 mm x 450 mm excluding slab thickness.
 Concrete Volume = 0.3 x 0.60 x 1 =0.138m³
 Concrete weight = 0.138 x 2400 = 333 kg.
 Steel weight (2%) in Concrete = = 0.138 x 0.02 x 7850 = 22 kg.
 Total Column weight= 333 + 22 = 355 kg/m = 3.5 KN/m.
Column Steel Design
Designing a steel column involves determining the column’s dimensions, the required section modulus, and the maximum axial load capacity. Here’s a general procedure for designing a steel column:
 Step 1: Determine the loads and load combinations
 Step 2: Determine the column’s dimensions
 Step 3: Choose the steel section
 Step 4: Check the axial load capacity
 Step 5: Check the strength and stability
Beam and Column
Beams and columns are two important structural elements used in building construction to support loads and distribute them to the foundation. A beam is a horizontal structural element that is designed to resist bending and support loads across a span. A column, on the other hand, is a vertical structural element that is designed to resist compressive loads.
How to Compute Dead Load?
Dead load = volume of member x unit weight of materials
By calculating the volume of each member and multiplying by the unit weight of the materials from which it is composed, an accurate dead load can be determined for each component.
Beam and Column Design
Similar to the film The Perfect Storm, beamcolumn design is the confluence of three separate design “storms”: compression member design, flexural member design, and the interaction of axial compression and flexural loads.
Load Beams
The loads on a beam can be point loads, distributed loads, or varying loads. There can also be point moments on the beam.
ExercisesEdit
 In the above beam, find the reactions in the supports and the shear force at a position x.
 The above beam shows loading by two separate point loads.
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mayank dave says
very good site
very helpful to new civil engineers
you should start structural design service for ind.hoes and buildings
also elevation and 3d service
Yusuff Olatunji Sikiru says
Good work.
Kumaravelan says
Good service u r doing to society.
Please keep it going on & publish new papers regularly.
Krunal Rajput says
Thanks, Sir